Viticulture Japan part 1
Several genera of the species of Vitis, such as Vitis coignetiae Pulliat. V. flexuosa Thumb. and V. amurensis Rupr. native to Japan. However, they were not introduced to the culture and not used for breeding purposes. The first information about cultural grapes in Japan discovered in the XII century, when wild grapes, with fruit of good quality, was found in goes is Yamanashi ahead. Japan, obviously, is not the place of origin of grapes, suggesting that its ancestor may have been imported from China in the eighth century. The offspring of grapes, adapted to the environment of this region and there has been a cultural grape variety Koshu. In the XVII century, the grape variety, Koshu became known for its high quality. At the end of the nineteenth century, the government actively imported various kinds of grapes, including V. vinifera, V. labrusca and V. labruscana from the USA and Europe. However, most varieties of grapes belonging to the species V. vinifera could successfully be cultivated due to the spread of fungal diseases. Only a few cultivars Vitis vinifera, for example, the Muscat of Alexandria. could normally grow in greenhouses. The grapes of V. labrusca and V. labruscana, on the other hand, grew successfully. Catawba County. Campbell early, and Delaware were diluted in goes is Yamanashi ahead, Osaka, and Okayama prefectures in the early XX century.
Breeders of grapes, trying to bring table grapes with good quality berries suitable for damp conditions of Japan. Several varieties of grapes, such as Kehoe. Muscat Bailey A. Neomycin and Hiro Hamburg were derived from crosses between V. labruscana and V. vinifera or V. vinifera in the middle of the twentieth century. These grapes, however, could not be cultivated successfully because of low yields and susceptibility to fungal diseases.
From 1960 to 1980, viticulture developed especially rapidly. Success in producing seedless grapes from cultivar Delaware using the treatments of gibberellin was the spread of this grape variety. Grape variety Koshu is famous for its large berries and excellent taste, were planted throughout the country except Hokkaido, the most Northern island. The development of viticulture, also, contributed to the use of plastic films, which greatly reduced the spread of fungal diseases and contributed to both higher yields and higher quality berries. Greenhouse culture of grapes have also become widespread. Developed the breeding of virus-free planting material of grapes, using the technology of in-vitro. Cultivation technology and improving the quality of grapes had been significantly improved. As a result, most of the new vineyards were laid of virus-free planting material. The main areas of grape production has strengthened in the Northern, Central, and Western parts of the country.
Viticulture Japan got the start with the development of varieties of Koshu (Vitis vinifera var. orientalis), which was discovered in goes is Yamanashi ahead in 1186. Subsequently, in the nineteenth century were introduced to European and American grape varieties. The main causes for poor growth of European varieties of Vitis vinifera were serious damage by phylloxera, and many other diseases. On the other hand, American grape varieties derived from V. labrusca were suited to the Japanese environmental conditions. Delaware, Campbell early. Niagara. and Concord became popular in the early 20th century. Subsequently, the popularity of the Mow grew rapidly in the seventies of the last century.
It is important to grow new varieties of grapes that feel good in the natural environment, Japan, and popular among consumers. Breeding programs of Japan, which began in the twenties of the last century, focused on these tasks. More than 200 varieties of grapes have been withdrawn since then. Methods cross-hybridization contributed to the development of viticulture. However, using this approach, inherited not only desirable but unfavorable quality. Recent advance of biotechnology opens up a few new ways, such as the transformation of genes and molecular markers for breeding, and may help to overcome the limitations of traditional methods.
2. The current state of viticulture in Japan
Grape production has evolved in all four major Islands of Japan from North to South. The main wine-growing regions – Yamagata, goes is Yamanashi ahead, and Nagano Prefecture in the Northern and Central parts, and Okayama and Fukuoka prefectures in the southern part of Japan. Most vineyards in Japan is grown table grapes.