The History of Taekwondo as a national martial arts
From the beginning to the mid-twentieth century Korea was a Japanese colony. And as with all colonies, the use of different national perspectives in the cultural sphere were considerably reduced – as its manifestations big and small. Including the intricacies of school education, songs, poetry, graphics, national teaching martial arts. 35 years of Korean martial arts remained in the underground. Was interrupted the process of transmission from teachers to students the basics of martial arts – spiritual mystical practice. And she is known, played a major role in the attainment of many martial arts schools and traditional styles. Therefore, after Korea’s liberation from the colonial regime once again reviving the Korean martial arts schools have lost this important feature of comprehension martial art, and you have only the technique of doing melee.
Later, as we know, Korea was divided into two separate States. The Republic of Korea is located in the South and the DPRK in the North. But in both States in power were dictators. Dictatorial regime and have never suffered spiritual independence and integrity. In the end, the authorities wanted to completely eradicate every spiritual mystical Foundation in the traditions of martial arts. To make them sport form of martial arts and to start mass production pipeline of newly minted “masters” of martial arts. That is why for a long time in South Korea persecution was carried out masters of traditional schools of thicken, Hapkido, Kuk-Sullivan, subak, tansudo, etc. They don’t need the government. Seemed too independent. And in the North such masters forbade.
Later in 1950, after the withdrawal of Japanese oppression, few “masters” of new sports schools decided to unite and create a unique uniform style. These nine schools were: Chanag-Kwan, Chidog-Kwan, Candog-Kwan, Chandog-Kwan, Enmp-Kwan, Mudog-Kwan, Dog-Kwan, SNMP-Kwan, Hanmag-Kwan. The suffix “Kwan” translated from Korean means “Palace”. Then work on the standardization of the new style took over Lieutenant-General Choi Hong-Hee at the age of 32, head of the school of Dog-Kwan. Western transcription of his name is Choi Hong Hee. That is why he is considered the founder of the style “Taekwondo”. This name was introduced in 1955, when Lieutenant-General Choi Hong-Hee announced that universal created a new style – now traditional national martial art “Taekwondo”. The development of this style was continued in the action of General: in 1961 he became the head created by Korean Taekwondo Association, in 1966, he founded the Seoul International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). Then six years later, General Park Chung-Hee became President of South Korea for the third consecutive time, by juggling with the election results. This arbitrariness does not stand Choi Hong Hee and went to Canada. There, in Toronto, and transferred the headquarters of the International Taekwondo Organization. The following year, in 1973, South Korea creates the world Taekwondo Federation (WTF). At its head was Kim UN Yong. In the result, there are two Taekwondo Federation – ITF and WTF. WTF is developing the latest sets of exercises – “pumse”. Then began the Exodus of Taekwondo from ITF. More mass he purchased in 1984 when it was revealed that following the ongoing Olympic games Taekwondo competitions will be held according to WTF rules. General Choi was forced due to the loss of his people and the Federation is no longer economical to obey the North Korean authorities.
Currently the WTF opened organizations in 118 countries. It includes about 25 million athletes. In the Republic of Korea has about half a million. The ITF’s position is much more modest. ITF is prevalent mostly in the DPRK. As for the rest of the world, the difference between ITF and WTF there is even greater. ITF is not so popular, like WTF. The headquarters of the WTF in Seoul is located in the centre called the Kukkiwon. In addition, several years ago there was another international organization – the global Taekwondo Federation. But very little is known.